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Examination of Modern and Traditional Application in Hazelnut Production

Examination of Modern and Traditional Application in Hazelnut Production


Ente finanziatore: ERASMUS PLUS; call 2016 - KA2 - Cooperation for Innovation and the Exchange of Good Practices Strategic Partnerships for vocational education and training


Unità di Ricerca: UNITUS-DAFNE

Responsabile scientifico: Valerio Cristofori

Partecipanti: Stefano Speranza, Cristian Silvestri



Durata: (2 anni: data di inizio 1/10/2017 - data di fine 30/09/2018)





A large portion of hazelnut which is covered by trade in the world is bought by the European countries and mostly used by the candy and chocolate industry (80 %).

The hazelnut production, which is carried out in a land area of approximately 700 thousand hectares in Turkey that achieves 70 % of the world hazelnut production on an average basis concentrates in the provinces of Ordu and Giresun in the Eastern Black Sea Region particularly. According to the Ministry of Customs and Trade, hazelnut exports account for 15 - 20 % of agricultural export and 2 % of total exports. According to the data of the Turkish Institute of Statistics (TÜIK), 540 000 tons of hazelnut is produced on a land area of 700 thousand hectares on an average basis. 380 thousand families provide livelihood to approximately 3 million persons by producing hazelnut on a land area of 700 thousand hectares. Turkey is followed by Italy, Azerbaijan, Georgia, USA, Spain and France, respectively, in terms of major hazelnut producing countries.

Italy: It is the second largest hazelnut producing country with production of 100 thousand tons a year on a land area of approximately 70 thousand hectares. Its share in the world production is approximately 10 % (FAO 2014). The hazelnut production largely concentrates in the regions of Viterbo, Avellino and Messino and the average hazelnut efficiency is 1.87 t/h in the country. Italy achieves 13 % of the world hazelnut supply with its hazelnut production of 98 thousand tons according to the last five years' average and in addition to this, it imports 103 thousand tons of shelled hazelnut on an average basis annually (INC 2014).

SPAIN : It is one of the major hazelnut producing countries. It has lost its position in the world production to the USA in the recent years. There has been no increase in the production areas in the period of last 20 years and hazelnut production totaling 18 thousand tons has been carried out on a land area of 14 thousand hectares. Spain achieves 2.4 % of the world hazelnut supply with its hazelnut production of 19 thousand tons according to the last five years' average and in addition to this, it imports 11 thousand tons of hazelnut on an average basis annually (INC 2014).

Hazelnut is supported under the Common Agricultural Policy and financed by the Guarantee Department of the European Agricultural Guarantee and Direction Fund (FEOGA). In Turkey, Area Based Income Support, new product support for the lands having lower hazelnut efficiency and intervention purchases through TMO (Soil Products Office) are some of them.

Based on an analysis of the policies implemented in connection with hazelnut, which is covered by the World trade and of the works carried out in connection therewith, low quality and low efficiency are the most fundamental problem. It has been observed that the works carried out have concentrated on the analysis of  any such elements affecting efficiency and quality and on addressing these problems (International Congress on Hazelnut, 2014). It is underlined by the European Common Agricultural Policy Report that the support expenditure made has failed to yield the required results and that the emerging budgetary constraints have rendered new quests necessary in connection therewith. Accordingly, teaching new methods to the farmers by sharing the best practices within vocational trainig in Turkey, Italy and Spain, which enjoy the highest shares in hazelnut  agriculture, would make contributions to this target and at the same time, this would also provide policy makers with new ideas. Farmers learning about correct agricultural methods and implementing them would affect efficiency and quality directly.

In this Project which has been prepared under the strategic partnership for professional training and learning, it is focused on the improvement of the professional capacities of the farmers through exchange of new technologies and cases of best practices on an international scale. It is also highly important in the development of the EU Common Agricultural Policy and chronological evolution that an integral viewpoint is provided to the Community and that thus, development is achieved in these areas in a mutually compatible manner.  At the same time, the activities of the planned Project also directly make contributions to the target, Erasmus Plus Programe Guide : "to ensure development, transfer and / or implementation of innovative practices on an institutional, local, regional, national or European level" .


Link: Facebook: @hazelnuterasmusplus